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Analogies in this section deal with the properties of solutions and
electrolytes of all types, and related concepts.
If a bolt represents a positive ion, a nut analogous to a negative ion
and assembled units represent undissociated molecules of the electrolyte,
these units can be used to represent various types of electrolytes:
A strong electrolyte would be represented by an equal no. of separate
nuts and bolts in a box (complete dissociation).
A weak electrolyte would be represented by assemblying most nuts and
bolts into pairs, and having only a few disconnected (small per cent
A non-electrolyte would be represented by assemblying all the nuts and
bolts into pairs so that none were disconnected (no ionization).
A more concentrated solution of a weak electrolyte would be represented
by showing a greater number of assembled nuts and bolts, but a smaller per
cent of them dissociated into separate pieces.
Source: Fortman, John J. Pictorial Analogies X: Solutions of
Electrolytes Journal of Chemical Education January 1994, 71(1),
Imagine a seesaw or teeter totter with hydronium ion concentration at
one end and hydroxide ion concentration located at the other end. As the
seesaw operates, it will show the required inverse relationship between
these factors .... as the hydronium ion concentration goes up, the
hydroxide ion concentration goes down, and vice versa.
Similarly, a seesaw with pH at one end and hydronium ion concentration
at the other, shows the relationship these factors have .... as hydronium
ion concentration goes up, the pH goes down, and vice versa.
Source: Fortman, John S. Pictorial Analogies XI:
Concentrations and Acidity of Solutions Journal of Chemical Education
May 1994, 71(5), 431
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